When it comes to making a change to your body (changing your body composition in some way) this pyramid is the absolute most important thing to keep in mind for the nutrition side of things.
The largest tier, and most important factor when aiming to illicit a change in your body, is energy balance or calories in vs. calories out (CICO).
Calorie intake rules over all other tiers. Caloric intake is the first place to start. For some calorie control is all that is needed in order to achieve a goal.
You can monitor your calorie intake via an app like MyFitnessPal or by using a meal plan. Portion sizing is a more loose way to control calorie intake. It’s important to choose the one that you can actually stick to, as body change takes TIME.
A calorie deficit must be achieved long term to fruit weight loss, a calorie surplus must be achieved long term to fruit weight gain. These are not up for discussion and there are no other factors that overrule these (see: hormones, insulin, glycemic index, fasting etc.)
Once conformable with managing daily or weekly caloric intake moving onto macronutrient tracking can be the next step. It’s not necessary for every person and should not be forced upon everyone in order to ‘see results’.
Fibre is a part of a carb goal and is equally as important as hitting your protein and fats. Don’t forget about fibre.
Micronutrient goals can be the next step. Things like aiming for daily Vitamin C, A, calcium and potassium intakes that are around the RDI for your age and gender.
Meal timing is next. Don’t even get near meal timing considerations until calories, macros and micros are down.
Supplements are the least important. For a person not using substances to alter their body composition then supplements will account for roughly 5-7% of progress towards a goal.